Endurance Events and Lactate Testing
With Emphasis on the Triathlon
16 of 19
Training to control the
gatekeeper for aerobic energy
Implications for Training and Testing
The implication of the charts in the preceding section is that an athlete will generate considerably less lactate at lower VLamax rates as well as fewer hydrogen ions. This means that the muscles will be less acidic and will be able to contract more freely at higher percentages of VO2 max. For endurance athletes this is highly desirable as they will be able to race at a much higher percentage of VO2 max before generating large amounts of lactate.
Jan Olbrecht has found that it is possible to train these VLamax rates. There seems to be a genetic maximum and there is probably some lower limit for each athlete. But it is not uncommon to raise or lower this parameter during a training season and thus affect lactate production and the corresponding lactate curves and the performance of an athlete during an event. Coaches often do this type of training instinctively as they know that certain types of workouts in certain sequences lead to better performances.
The following three charts provide insight into the differences between the measures of the aerobic system and the anaerobic system. The important thing is that a coach or sports scientist cannot take their in-depth understanding of VO2 max and apply the same assumptions to the anaerobic system. It is a very different world. First, two charts that illustrate the conventional wisdom for aerobic capacity.
Source: A physiological comparison of young and older endurance athletes, G. W. Heath, J. M. Hagberg, A. A. Ehsani, and J. O. Holloszy, Journal of Applied Physiology September 1981 vol. 51 no. 3 634-640
Notice that trained is higher than untrained and that younger is higher than older. Nothing unusual here. Just what one expects. If you train, your VO2 max will increase but the maximum it can reach declines with age. But here is a chart we showed earlier on anaerobic capacity. It shows something entirely different.
Source: Biochemistry for Medical Sciences, Newsholme, E., Leech, A.,
John Wiley 1983
There is not much published on this concept and that is one reason why no one pays attention to it but just because it is not a subject of research, it does not mean that it is not important. It should be a major area of research. Notice it is the "couch potato" or untrained individual that has a high anaerobic capacity, just the opposite from aerobic capacity which is lowest in untrained individuals. So training seems to lower anaerobic capacity. But that is a flawed conclusion, as only certain types of training lower it. There is no information here on sprinters but if there were, their values would be high, much higher than the untrained people in the above chart. The 100 m and 200 m sprinter would be extremely high and these people obviously train. Thus, certain types of training lower anaerobic capacity and other types raise it or keep it high. There are definitely genetic limits as only a few can become world-class sprinters or at the other end, world class marathoners or Ironmen.
But what is the proper anaerobic capacity for an athlete? That depends on the event the athlete is training for and the strength of the aerobic system. No matter what the event, more aerobic capacity is always better. However, this is far from true for anaerobic capacity. Anaerobic capacity has to be adjusted to aerobic capacity and the event.
Some typical training scenarios - For short races it is very common to manipulate the anaerobic capacity during a normal training season. For example, swimming is mostly races lasting less than two minutes. During a training season the coach will always start out with endurance training. As the important meets approach, the coach will switch to high intensity workouts (often referred to as quality sets) which have the objective of raising the anaerobic capacity of the swimmers to make them faster. Since their races are short, this increase in anaerobic capacity provides the speed to do well in these short events. But for longer races this increase in anaerobic capacity would be detrimental. For endurance athletes, anaerobic capacity should often be lowered, but not always. Some athletes already have low anaerobic capacities so lowering them any more could be self- defeating.
The relative strength of the aerobic and anaerobic systems determines substrate utilization for ATP replacement. This is the key point every textbook misses and because they miss it they are inadequate on providing proper training advice. As an athlete goes through the training process these energy systems will change depending upon the training stimulus and subsequent adaptation. This means that the proportion of ATP replacement by each system will change accordingly. This is reflected in the following three principles of lactate production:
• Intensity Principle – Lactate production increases as intensity increases (within each individual athlete).
• Aerobic Capacity Principle - As aerobic capacity increases the utilization of the anaerobic system will be less at every effort level if nothing else changes. Less lactate will be produced at each effort level.
• Anaerobic Capacity Principle – As anaerobic capacity increases the utilization of the aerobic system will be less at every effort level if nothing else changes. More lactate will be produced at each effort level. The reverse of this is also true. As the anaerobic capacity decreases the utilization of the aerobic system will be higher at every effort level. Less lactate will be produced at each effort level.
One of the important implications of the last principle is that the amount of the aerobic system an athlete can access during a race is dependent upon the strength of the anaerobic system. The stronger the anaerobic system, the lower the percentage of aerobic capacity an athlete will reach at the maximum lactate steady state. For longer races this is one of the most important factors affecting performance. Essentially, the anaerobic system acts as a Gate Keeper for the aerobic system. It determines how much can get used. An athlete may have a huge aerobic capacity and not be able to access most of it because of the anaerobic capacity.
Implications for Training
Since training can affect both of these capacities in ways not always expected, it is useful to continually monitor an athlete to assess whether training is having the desired effects. The following chart indicates what can happen to lactate levels when aerobic and anaerobic capacity changes.
The chart can be read as follows. In the upper left hand box where anaerobic capacity rises and aerobic capacity also rises, lactate production could go up or down at a specific effort level. An increase in anaerobic capacity will tend to increase lactate production while and an increase in aerobic capacity will tend to lower it. So when both of these capacities increase, the net effect could be either higher or lower lactate production. It could go up or down depending upon which change had a greater effect.
When aerobic capacity goes up and anaerobic capacity goes down, the amount of lactate produced is often dramatically less. This is a situation quite common with swimmers and many other athletes during base training. However, when a swimmer increases anaerobic capacity training later in the training cycle it is quite common to see lactate levels rise because aerobic capacity has essentially topped out for the training period. Thus, the athlete is in the middle box on the left hand side. For an athlete such as a swimmer who is competing in short events (1-2 minutes) this is an indication that they are getting faster as their anaerobic system will be producing energy more quickly during these short events.
A note on training. Every set and every workout will affect the aerobic capacity and the anaerobic capacity to some extent. Some more, some less. Some workouts may affect one capacity more than the other. To reach a desired balance it may be desirable to train one capacity in the wrong direction for a short time period and then counter act this effect with training it in the other direction. The reason is that it may be desirable to get one, for example aerobic capacity, to a certain level but the best way to do that it to train the anaerobic capacity either too high or too low for the event. Subsequent training might be to then adjust the anaerobic capacity, hopefully without affecting the aerobic capacity. Training over a season is a continual building to an objective but constantly modifying one or both of these capacities over time to reach the desired balance.
This section is only a brief part of Alois Mader's model of energy metabolism. One of the most important contributions of this model is an explanation of how the anaerobic system affects energy metabolism and training, which was our emphasis in these three modules (Anaerobic mechanism, anaerobic gatekeeper, controlling the gatekeeper). For short races such as swimming the model explains how an athlete can get faster while the lactate curve remains the same or even moves to the left. It also explains why most of the training for short events must be aerobic even though the anaerobic system is the primary source of energy during a short race. For longer events, the model explains just what causes the maximum lactate steady state and what percentage of VO2 max an athlete can utilize during distance events such as the marathon, cycling road races and the triathlon. The model also explains why elite athletes, especially endurance athletes, are in more danger of over-training than lower level athletes and thus must be more careful of how intensely they train.
Mader, A. and H. Heck (1986). "A theory of the metabolic origin of "anaerobic threshold"." International Journal of Sports Medicine 7(Sup): S45-S65.
Mader, A. (1991). "Evaluation of the endurance performance of marathon runners and theoretical analysis of test results." Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 31(1): 1-19.
Mader, A. (2003). "Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation as a function of cytosolic phosphorylation state and power output of the muscle cell." European Journal of Applied Physiology 88(4-5): 317-38.
Hartmann, U., & Mader, A. (1996). The metabolic basis of rowing. In Rogozkin & R. J. Maughan (Eds.), Current research in sports science (pp. 179-185). New York: Plenum Press.
Mader, A., Hartmann, U., Hollmann, W. (1988). Der Einfluß der Ausdauer auf die 6minütige maximale anaerobe und aerobe Arbeitskapazität eines Eliteruderers. S. 62-79. In: Steinacker, J.: Rudern: Sportmedizinische und sportwissenschaftliche Aspekte. Berlin: Springer.
Mader, A., (1994). Aussagekraft der laktatieistungskurve in kombination mit anaeroben tests zur bestimmung der stoffwechselkapazität. In: Clasing, D., Weicker, H., Boening, D.: Stellenwert der Laktatbestimmung in der Leistungsdiagnostik. Stuttgart: G. Fischer.
Continue on to section 17 on consistency in testing